New reporting guidance for surgical case reports (SCARE) & case series (PROCESS)

To address a lack of guidance for authors of papers reporting case reports and case series in surgical research Riaz Agha, Department of Plastic Surgery, Guy’s and St. Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK and colleagues have developed 2 consensus based guidelines.

For Case Reports

  • CARE Guideline supports transparency and accuracy in publication of case-reports.
  • However, the CARE guidelines are not tailored to surgery.
  • Delphi-consensus exercise was used to develop Surgical CAse REport (SCARE) Guidelines.
  • Journals will be encouraged to endorse the SCARE guideline.

To cite the guidelines:
Agha RA, Fowler AJ, Saetta A, Barai I, Rajmohan S, Orgill DP, for the SCARE  Group. The SCARE Statement: Consensus-based surgical case report guidelines.  International Journal of Surgery 2016;34:180-186. 

Download the paper and checklist from the SCARE Statement website




Agha R, Fowler AJ, Saetta A, Barai I, Rajmohan S, Orgill DP on behalf of the SCARE Steering Group and the Academic Surgical Collaborative.  A Protocol for the Development of Reporting Criteria for Surgical Case Reports: the SCARE Statement.  International Journal of Surgery 2016;27:187-189.  PMID: 26828281.

Preferred reporting of case series in surgery (PROCESS) 

To cite the guidelines:
Agha RA, Fowler AJ, Rajmohan S, Barai I, Orgill DP and the PROCESS Group.  The PROCESS Statement: Preferred Reporting of Case Series in Surgery. International Journal of Surgery 2016; (article in press).

Download the paper and checklist from the PROCESS Statement website


  1. Agha R, Fowler AJ, Lee SY, Gundogan B, Whitehurst K, Sagoo H, Jeong KJL, Altman DG and Orgill DP. A Systematic Review Protocol for Reporting Deficiencies within Surgical Case Series.  BMJ Open 2015;5:e008007.  PMID:26438134.
  2. Agha R, Fowler A, Lee S, Gundogan B, Whitehurst B, Sagoo H, Jeong KJL, Altman D and Orgill D. A Systematic Review of the Methodological and Reporting Quality of Care Series in Surgery.  British Journal of Surgery 2016 (article in press). PMID: 27511619.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *